Managing Water Resources in Developing Countries: South Africa As An Example for Policy And Regulation - page 06

 

Table 2: Policy and legislative distinction between water resources and water services in South Africa

Field

Water Resources

Water Services

Policy framework and legislation

Constitution and the Bill of Rights, White Paper on National Water Policy for South Africa, National Water Act, National Water Resources Strategy

Constitution and the Bill of Rights, Strategic Framework for Water Services,  Water Services Act, Water Services Regulatory Strategy

Economic regulation

Raw water pricing

Treated water pricing including free basic water

Technical regulation

Abstraction, discharge, storage including dam safety, ecological and basic human needs reserve, water allocation, etc.

Drinking water quality, access to services, reliability of supply, minimum standards, effluent removal and treatment, discharge quality

Governance regulation

Department of Water Affairs, Catchment Management Agencies, Water User Associations

Water Boards, Water Services Authorities, Water Service Providers

Compliance monitoring and enforcement

Directives, Courts, ability to take action and reclaim costs

Cooperative governance, Directives, Courts as a last resort

 

The White Paper on Water Supply and Sanitation published in November 1994 was the starting point in the development of a new water policy in South Africa. The principles around which the policy was based are:

  • Demand driven and community based development
  • Basic services as a human right
  • "Some for all" rather than "all for some"
  • Equitable regional allocation of development resources
  • Water has economic value
  • The user pays principle
  • Integrated development.
  • Environmental integrity.

The White Paper on Water Supply and Sanitation was the foundation for further policy and legislative development that resulted in the current Policy and Legislative Framework for the management of the water sector in South Africa (Figure 3).

 

Figure 3: Water Resources Management Policy and Legal Framework (current situation).

 Figure 3: Water Resources Management Policy and Legal Framework (current situation).